BELLEVILLE — A new Illinois law signed Wednesday made it illegal to incinerate a class of toxic chemicals known to cause cancer and other health problems.
Metro-east lawmakers and environmental advocates raised concerns last year about burning PFAS, or per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, after the U.S. Department of Defense authorized a Sauget incinerator to dispose of the man-made chemicals.
The Defense Department has an interest in figuring out how to dispose of PFAS because they are a main ingredient in firefighting foam, which is used in particular at military installments such as Scott Air Force Base. The chemicals are more effective in putting out aviation and fuel fires than water. They're also common in consumer products such as nonstick pans, waterproof clothes, microwave popcorn bags, fast food wrappers and stain-resistant carpets.
But they're toxic. Decades of research connects PFAS to thyroid disease, low birth weight, reduced responsiveness to vaccines, increased cholesterol, liver damage, kidney cancer and testicular cancer.
The chemicals remain mostly unregulated throughout the United States.
The exact effects of inhaling air contaminated with PFAS is not yet known, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. But scientists know people can be exposed in a variety of ways, and exposure at certain levels comes with health risks. Some people are more at risk of PFAS exposure, including people who live near facilities that produce PFAS.
As research continues about the effects of inhaling incinerated PFAS, lawmakers said they wanted to take steps to ban burning it. State Sen. Christopher Belt, D-Swansea, and state Rep. LaToya Greenwood, D-East St. Louis, sponsored the legislation (HB 4818).
"This initiative stems from concerns that our neighbors have surrounding the waste incinerator in Sauget, which puts Metro East residents at risk of exposure to these harmful substances," Belt said in a prepared statement.
Veolia Environmental Services operates the incinerator in Sauget. A spokesperson for the company told St. Louis Public Radio they do not accept material they know has PFAS in it. The company noted many products contain PFAS and they can't ensure none of the chemicals are incinerated.
Gov. J.B. Pritzker vetoed a similar bill last year because it would have affected pollution-control methods that involve PFAS, the governor wrote in a letter.
Another main source of exposure is through drinking water. The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency is developing regulations that could set maximum PFAS levels in community drinking water systems.
How to protect your garden before and after severe storms
Here's what gardeners can do in face of storms
As we celebrate blooming roses, ripening tomatoes and the pollinator frenzy in our backyards, we gardeners also should be aware of the downsides of summer: thunderstorms, tropical storms and hurricanes.
The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is predicting an "above-normal 2022 Atlantic hurricane season," and even as tornado season winds down, some threat remains year-round in parts of the country.
So what's a gardener to do? After ensuring that people, homes and other structures are safe, our thoughts naturally turn to our beds and borders. We've poured our blood, sweat, tears and money into them, so protecting our investment — and the joy it brings — matters.
Before the storm
When storms are predicted, close patio umbrellas and store garden furniture indoors, if possible. Examine trees for cracked or broken branches and remove them before they're torn by strong winds and sent flying. If those trees are large, hire a certified arborist to inspect them; the cost is nothing compared to the damage they could cause if they were to break or topple.
In warmer climes, palm trees are well-adapted to high-wind conditions, so there's no need to prune them, but remove coconuts and store them safely indoors.
If your soil is moist — either naturally or from recent rain — apply 3 inches of mulch over beds and borders. That will offer protection against the soaking effects of a deluge, which could uproot trees, especially shallow-rooted ones like white pine, birch, willow and tulip poplar, among others.
Stake any newly planted trees to support them, and bring hanging baskets and planters into the home, shed or garage. If that's not possible, line them up against the house or another protected spot.
Protect the flowers of small blooming plants by covering them with buckets or cloches topped with something heavy, like a brick, to hold them in place. Wrap larger plants with burlap secured with twine. Orchids, bromeliads, succulents, air plants and other tree-dwelling plants can be tied into place with fishing line.
Check that all vining plants are secured to their supports, and that the supports are firmly staked into the ground. If they don't feel secure, remove the supports and lay them – and the plants – on the ground until the threat passes.
Lay row cover fabric over tender, young seedlings and pin it into place with landscape pegs.
After the storm
Once the storm has passed, clear away fallen fruit and vegetables, which could attract rodents if left to rot on the ground, and remove protection from around plants.
Inspect trees for damage. If you can safely remove hanging, broken branches while standing on the ground, do so. But avoid pruning anything higher than your head or climbing a ladder to prune. Those jobs are best left to a professional -- and that doesn't mean a guy who shows up at your door with a chainsaw, who is unlikely to know what he's doing and could be a scammer.
The International Society of Arborists maintains a list of certified arborists on its website at https://www.treesaregood.org/findanarborist; start your search there.
If a small tree has been toppled or uprooted, straighten and stake it as soon as possible, tamping the soil firmly as you replant it. Insert stakes into the ground around the trunk, attach twine, rope or cord to the stakes, and fasten them to the tree. Apply 3 inches of mulch or straw over the soil, keeping it 3 to 4 inches away from trunks, and water the tree regularly for the remainder of the growing season. This will help re-establish the root system.
Wind sway helps trees develop strong trunks and roots, so don't keep the tree staked for longer than six months to a year.
Salt spray can desiccate, or dehydrate, trees and shrubs near the coasts, and they might not show symptoms until the following year. Apply mulch around trees to retain soil moisture, and water deeply and repeatedly to flush out salts.
Refrain from pruning evergreens or removing dry tips until after new growth appears the following spring.
If high tides encroach upon your property, salt will likely form a crust on the soil's surface, leading to dehydration. Most plants won't survive such devastation, but the soil can be restored: Water deeply, then spread gypsum over the soil. It will react with the salt to form sodium sulfate, which will wash through the ground with repeated waterings. Continue watering deeply for the rest of the year.
Jessica Damiano writes regularly about gardening for The Associated Press. A master gardener and educator, she writes The Weekly Dirt newsletter and creates an annual Gardening Calendar of daily gardening tips. Send her a note at firstname.lastname@example.org and find her at jessicadamiano.com and on Instagram @JesDamiano.